Kachin's Anti-Government Forces
Burma drew the Union Constitution in 1947 and so got the united independence in 1948.
The constitution of 1947 has promised that if a state finds the union is negative to its own national interest, it can leave the union after 10 years of independence. Because the Burmese Army practises Chauvinism and dictatorship to oppress all other nationalities, nationalities of Karen, Karenni, Mon, Shan, Arakan, Chin etc have carried on armed struggle for their national equal rights. 10 years after independence, 1958, the national representatives expressed their great dissatisfaction at the parliament.
Result: there came up Burmese Army's "Take-Care Government" in 1959, with the bayonet pointing to them. All nationalities became more dissatisfied and opposed the Chauvinism and dictatorship more strongly.
On February 5, 1961 Zau Seng and his brothers Zau Tu and Zau Dan along with hundreds of Kachin youth established in northern the Shan State Kachin Independence Organization (KIO). Their first operation was to attack a military base near Kutkhai, northern Shan State.Then they shifted quickly to Bamaw area in Kachin State. From this revolutionary base,they launched their long-term national revolution.
On Mar 2,1962, Ne Win's Burmese Army seized the power through a coup.They ended the parliamentary democracy and abolished the Union Constitution: They did -dismiss all organisations including students' union.
On 7-7-1962 shoot dead hundreds peacefully demonsrating Rangoon University students and drive all students home.
In 1963 reclose down all universities in Burma and expell for ever the students who dare to appeal for domestic peace.
In 1964 under the name of "natinalisation and socialist economy", occupy all private enterprises in Burma, by annulling without compensation the banknotes of 100K and 50K,loot the people's fortune.
In 1966-67, launch anti-Chinese campaign and massacred Burma's Chinese in order to escape from nation-wide famine.
Stir up in turn various racist and religious conflicts to flee economic and politic crises.
Rule the country with military dictatorship till now In 1968 the KIO combined forces with the Communist Party of Burma (CPB)to fight the Burmese junta. Nationally they gave military training to ethnic armed groups such as the Palaung and Rakhine insurgents, internationally they gave access and passage rights through areas controlled by them to Naga and Mizo insurgents from India.
In 1975 the KIO leaders Zau Seng, Zau Tu and Pung Shwe Zau Seng were assassinated at the Thai-Burma border. Brang Seng took over as Chairman and Zaung Hkra as Secretary of the KIO. At that time the KIO was the main force in the National Democratic Front (NDF), an ethnic army alliance.
On 24-2-1994, the KIO entered a ceasefire agreement with the regime (State Law and Order Restoration Council). In fact in 1963 and 1980 the KIO had already tried his best for domestic peace negotiation with Burmese authorities but in vain. A few months after the cease-fire, Brang Seng died. Zau Mai became KIO's new leader.
In February 2001, a reformist faction within KIO staged a coup at the KIO headquarter at Lai Sin near the China border. They detented Zau Mai and later ousted him. Lamung Tu Jai became the leader of the KIO.
A political group formed secretly on 24-1-2005 The Kachin Solidarity Council in Pang Wa, the NDA-K headquarter,including a Joint Military Commission and a Joint Economic Commission. It seems a parallel organization against the KIO's Kachin Consultative Assembly, KCA, which was formed in 2002 .
According to the Kachin Independence Organization, KIO, the council is led by Zahkung Ting Ying, leader of the New Democratic Army-Kachin, and 3 deputy leaders: Col Lasang Awng Wah, who is the leader of a KIO splinter group, Mahtu Naw, the leader of Kachin Defense Army and Bawmwang La Raw, a leader of Kachin National Organization, KNO.
People believe that the great master behind them is the Burmese junta.
The KSC statement pointed out that people in Kachin State must live under the control of the Burmese military government and engage in development projects under their guidance step by step to democratic country. It criticised KIO leaders "conservative" and their policies "not upgrade".
By his new house opening ceremony -in Muse of Northern Shan State on 7£2£2005 , Zahkung Ting Ying, leader of New Democratic Army-Kachin, even demanded to dissolve Kachin Independence Organization, KIO, for sake of forming united and peaceful Kachin community.
People say that they are now neither KIO nor cease-fire group, they are in fact the border security militia group of Burmese Army.Besides the old revolutionary KIO, the following are some Kachin organisations:
Kachin Defense Army (KDA) An armed organization founded in 1990 by Mahtu Naw, commander of the Kachin Independence Army's 4th brigade based in northern Shan State. After the breakaway from its mother organization, KDA signed a ceasefire agreement with the ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council in the same year. The area controlled by KDA is now called Shan StateSpecial Region 5.
New Democratic Army-Kachin (NDA-K)
Founded by former KIO officers Zahkung Tingying and Layawk Zelum. NDA-K is the first Kachin group to reach a ceasefire agreement with the State Law and Order Restoration Council, in 1989, after the collapse of the CPB the same year. The organization is based in Pang Wa, former headquarters of the CPB's 101 War Zone, situated on the Sino-Burma border. The area controlled by the group is called Kachin State Special Region 1.
Kachin State National Congress for Democracy (KNCD)
A political party founded in Myitkyina by Kachin politicians led by Ubyit Tu, former State Council member of Ne Win's socialist BSPP government. The party won three seats in Kachin State in the 1990 general election.
Leading party members were arrested and the party was barred from political activities after the election. The KNCD, led by Gumgrawng Zau Ing and Bawm Lang, became a member of the United Nationalities Alliances (UNA), led by Khun Tun Oo, chairman of Shan Nationalities League for Democracy.
Kachin People's Party (KPP)
Founded on April 17, 2002 in Thailand by young Kachin inside and outside of Kachin State to lay the foundation for an "appropriate and meaningful democratic nation" which is essential to Kachin people and to resist all forms of dictatorship and despotic rule. The KPP leader is Gumgrawng Aung Wa.
Kachin National Organization (KNO)
A political organization founded by overseas Kachin and a group of elders from the Kachin homeland on January 9, 1999. KNO strives for an independent homeland and democratic government. Its leader is Hawwa Ja La.
All Kachin Student and Youth Union (AKSYU)
Founded on August 5, 1996 by exiled Kachin Student in India. The same year, AKSYU became a member organization of the Students and Youth Congress of Burma (SYCB), an opposition student and youth alliance.
AKSYU branched out to open offices in Thailand in 1998, Europe in February 2002 and China in Septemeber 2002. The all Kachin Students and Youth Union (AKSYU) is currently a member organization of the Students and Youth Congress of Burma (SYCB), United Nationalities Youth League (UNYL), and United Nationalities' Democratic Congress (UNDC).
The following are Kachin heros and leaders of the time:
Lahpai Naw Seng:
Born in 1922 in Man Peng Loi village, Lashio township, Shan State. Joined British Burma Frontier Force, Lashio Battalion. Led resistance against the Japanese in Kachin Hills during World War II; Jamedar in British-organized Northern Kachin Levies. Twice awarded the Burma Gallantry Medal by the British for his role in the anti-Japanese resistance. Captain in the 1st Kachin Rifles in 1946 and fought against the Communist Party of Burma in Irrawaddy delta region in 1948.
Worked with Karen rebel in February 1949. Led the upper Burma campaign against the Rangoon government and set up the Pawngyawng National Defense Force (the first Kachin rebel army in Burma) in November 1949. Retreated to into China form Mong Ko in northern eastern Shan State in April 1950.
In exile along with a few hundred followers in China's Guizhou province until 1968. Burma launched during 1964-67 anti-China campaign, as vice military commander (under Than Shwe) of the first CPB unit he entered Burma on 1 January 1968. Became military commander of northern eastern command in September 1969. Died under mysterious circumstances in the Wa Hill on 9 March 1972.
Lahtaw Zau Seng:
Born in 1928 in Kapna Bang Shau village near Hsenwi, northern Shan State, where his father, Balawng Du, was a Baptist pastor. Studied up to 7th standard in Hsenwi and served with the US-organized Detachment 101 as junior intelligence officer during World War II. Joined the 1st Kachin Rifles after the war and went underground with his commander, Naw Seng in 1949. Remained behind with Karen and Karenni reble in Burma when Naw Seng retreated to China in 1950.
Closedly connected with right-wing circle in Thailand in the 1950; attended meeting with the World Anti-Communist League in Saigon and Taiwan. Returned to Kachin State in 1958 to organized an uprising there; formed the Kachin Independence Army on 5 February 1961 together with his brothers Zau Tu and Zau Dan.President of the Kachin Independence Organization and commander of the KIA. Returned to the Thai border in 1965 to set up a based at the Tam Ngob headquarter of the 3rd Kuomintang. Assassinated near Tam Ngob along with Zau Tu and KIO general secretary Pungshwi Zau Seng on 6 August 1975.
Pungshwi Zau Seng:
Born in Hu Bren Pung Shwe near Kutkai in northeastern Shan State. Studied engineering, art, philosophy and political science at Rangoon University in 1955-59. Civil servant in northeastern Shan State before he joined the Kachin rebellion in 1961. General secretary of the Kachin Independence Organization and staunch anti-communist. Accompanied Zau Tu to the Thai border in 1973. Assassinated on 6 August 1975 near Tam Ngob along with Zau Seng and Zau Tu.
Maran Brang Seng:
Born in 1930 in Hpakan, Kachin State. Educated in Kachin Baptist School, Myitkyina; entered Rangoon University in 1952 and obtained a BA and a BEd in 1995. Burma's delegate to the YMCA to Singapore in 1957; headmaster of Myitkyina Baptist school 1957-60 and its principle 1961-63. Went underground with Kachin Independence Organization in 1963. Led the first Kachin rebel delegation to China in 1967.
Chairman of KIO since 1975. Made peace with the Communist Party of Burma in 1976 and led the delegation of National Democratic Front to the CPB's Panghsang headquarters in March 1986. Left Kachin State in late 1986 to travel abroad. Become vice chairman of Democratic Alliance of Burma on 18 November 1988 and was attached to its headquarter at Manerplaw on the Thai-Burma border until KIO made peace with Rangoon in April 1993. Suffered a stroke on 21 October 1993 in Kunming,Yunnan ,died on August 8 1994.
Mali Zup Zau Mai:
Born in 1936 in Manhkring village near Myitkyina. Studied at the Baptist High School in Myitkyina; obtained a degree from Rangoon University in 1959. Joined the Kachin Independence Army in 1962. Participated in 1963 peace talk with the Rangoon government. Commander of the KIA's 4th Brigade (northeastern Shan State) in 1972.
Fought battles with Communist forces in the area until peace treaty was reached in 1976. Become vice Chairman of the Kachin Independence Organization in 1975 and chief of staff of the KIA in 1980. Led the KIO delegation to hold peace talk with the military authorities in Myitkyina in September 1993. Leader of KIO until a coup by the reformist in February 2001 at the headquarter, Laisin. Charged with several treason cases and under house arrested at tha KIO headquarter.
Lamung Tu Jai:
Born in 1930 in Kutkai, Shan State. Studied at Kutkai middle school up to 8th Standard. Joined the 4th Kachin Rifles in 1950 and became lance coporal in 1956. Joined the Kachin rebel movement in 1961. Brigade commander (the Kachin Independence Army) in Putao area of Kachin State in 1973. Became chief of staff of the KIA in 1975; handed over his duties to Zau Mai in 1980. Member of central committee of the Kachin Independence Organization since 1975. Became leader of Kachin Independence organization after former leader Zau Mai ousted by the coup in 2001. General Lanung Tu Jai passed away in 2006 and Mr Zawng Hra succeeded over him.
Lanyaw Zawng Hra:
Born in 1935 in Sumpra Bum, Kachin State. Studied at the Kachin Baptist School in Myitkyina before being admitted to Rangoon University in 1955. Acquired a BA degree a few years later and worked for a while as sub-divisional officer of Sumprabum. Joined the Kachin rebles in 1963. General secretary of Kachin Independence organization since1976; attended peace talk in Rangoon in 1980. Accompanied Brang Seng abroad in 1987; returned to Kachin State in 1988. Became a vice Chairman of KIO after coup in early of 2001. Mr Lanyaw Zawng Hra became Chairman of the KIC, KIO 2006.
Zahkung Ting Ying:
Kachin of Ngochan tribe from the Yunnan frontier. Broke with the Kachin Independence Army and joined the Communist Party of Burma in early 1968. Established the CPB's 101 War Zone in the Panwa-Kambaiti area of eastern Kachin State together with Zalum, another KIA defector. Joined the 1989 mutiny, and his former CPB unit, now renamed the New Democratic Army-Kachin, was legalized on 15 December 1989 .Becomes government-recognized militia force and current leader of New Democratic Army-Kachin.
Gauri Zau Seng:
Born in 1942 in Myitkyina. Science student at Rangoon University in the early 1960s; active in Kachin Student movement. Went underground in 1964 with the Kachin Independence Army. Succeeded Zau Tu as commander of the KIA 's 2nd Brigade (western Kachin State) in 1975. Became member of the central committee of the Kachin Independence Organization 1977.
Led a Kachin delegation to the Thai border in 1983, (the first time since the assassination of Zau Seng, Zau Tu and Phungshwi Zau Seng in 1975). Vice chairman of the National Democratic Front in July 1991. The main Kachin representative in Thailand since 1983. Leading member and policy maker of the Kachin Independence Organization after 2001 coup . Vice president of KIO after reshuffling some senior leaders due to the possible coup attempt in its headquarter in January 2004.
The Following are Kachin Publications: -
Jinghpaw Prat (The Jinghpaw Era):
The first and only Kachin language weekly newspaper ever in circulation, The Jinghpaw Prat., was founded in 1958 by Zau Bawn, the editor of publication. The Jinghpaw Prat was distributed weekly until it was forced to cease publication in 1962 after Ne Win seized power by military coup and ordered to halt all independent newspaper publications.
Shi Laika Ningnan( New issue newspaper):
In 1943, the earliest Kachin language newspaper was published in India and distributed to northern Burma. The paper mainly covering battle news about Alliance and Japanese forces of the World War II was then airdropped into the Kachin-inhabited area.
Wunrawt Journal (The Progressive):
In 1998, there was another effort at establishing a vernacular press, with publication of the Kachin language monthly journal, Wun Rawt(The Progressive). The journal covered news, opinion and articles concerning to Kachin in Burma. After five issues, the editor was arrested in Rangoon for failing to submit his publication to the Press Scrutiny Board (PSB) censorship committee for publications, and the paper was shut down.
The Kachin Post:
Monthly Kachin language newspaper published on February 1, 2002, in Chiang Mai, Thailand by editor Naw Seng and some Kachin youth who are committed in freedom of press, independent journalism and democracy. The Kachin Post started launching online version at www.kachinpost.com on September 1, 2003.
Hparat Ninghkawng (Wisdom Power) Magazine:
Annual magazine published by Kachin Literature and Culture sub-committee of University of Yangon.
Chyurum Shalat (Kachin brotherhood development) Magazine: Annual magazine published by Kachin Literature and Culture sub-committee of University of Mandalay.
Buga Shanan ( Homeland's Light) Magazine:
Annual magazine published by Kachin Literature and Culture sub-committee of University of Myitkyina.
Pahtau (Triumph )Magazine:
Annual magazine published by Kachin Student studying at the Myanmar Institute of Theology in Insein, Rangoon.
Myihtoi Ma (spiritual media) Magazine:
Annual magazine published by Nawng Nang Kachin Theological College, in Myitkyina Kachin State.
Tsanlun( Olive biblical ) Magazine:
Published annually by the Kachin Baptist Youth Committee of Myitkyina region, Kachin State. The magazine covers regilion and activities of Baptist youth in Myitkyina. It was established in 1988.
Jawprat ( Century) 21 Journal:
Published every three months by the Youth section of Kachin Baptist Convention (KBC). The paper mainly covers regilious affairs and activities of Kachin Baptist Churches as well as culture issues. It is distributed with the Churches.
Gindai ( Central) Journal:
Published every three months by All Kachin Students and Youth Union (AKSYU) based in India. The paper covers politic, democracy and Human rights issues.It was established in 1997.
Padang Shiga (Victory News):
A monthly newsletter published by the Kachin in Japan to cover local news and activities as well as culture pieces. It was established in 1992.
Ram Padang (Youth Victory) Journal :
Quarter-annual journal published on October 1 2004 by Kachin Youth Fellowship Committee from Kachin Sub-State in northern Shan State, Burma .
*For more info please refer to :
"Burma Insurgency and the Politics of Ethnicity by Martin Smith, 2nd Edition 1999".
"Burma: Insurgency and the Politics of Ethnicity by Smith, Martin",
3. "Land of Jade by Bertil Lintner (A Journey from India through Northern Burma to China)".
4. "Political Systems of Highland Burma: A Study of Kachin Social Structure (London School of Economics Monographs on Social Anthropology) by Edmund Ronald Leach"
5. "Burma: Frontier Photographs 1918-1935 (published in 2000, edited by Elizabeth Dell, Mandy Sadan)". (boxun.com)
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